Firsthand and Secondhand Research

We have analyzed the question and you know what information we need to uncover it’s time to do the research there are basically two types of research firstly there is firsthand research where you go out talk to people conduct surveys you make observations you can really gather information in the real world the second kind of research is secondhand pursuit with you go to the library and you look at course materials books journal articles and even on the internet now when you are doing first-hand research that is things like interviews surveys observations etc it’s very important to prepare ahead of time take notes during the research gathering phase and have a clear idea about what information you need to find for example if we go back to our answer on teenage binge drinking who could you interview who could you survey what could you actually observe when you’re doing secondhand research.

You’re looking at the results of firsthand research that other people have done for example information in your course material readings in books journal articles databases internet sources etc just a quick word about internet sources be very careful of what you use from the internet because the Internet is unregulated anyone can put anything onto it you have to be sure that the information you’re getting online is credible to find out whether the information is credible take the author’s name and do a search in Google if you also have credibility you should be able to find other publications of as well as funny enough which university or institution is affiliated to if you can’t find this information be very wary of using anything that he’s posted on the web now if this never was the only use information which is posted on the credible organizations website laughing University or government department when you’re doing your research always remember that the bigger the quantity and the quality of evidence you present which supports your claim the more you can depend on it a good researcher is an active reader.

You need to have a pen or pencil in your hand whenever you are reading your source materials you have to stop often to gather your thoughts this system of responding to what you are reading is a good way to make notes about what you are reading on the screen now you will see one way of sitting out the notes you take as you are reading at the top the put source information the author the date the title or the publication details in other words all the information that you’re going to need later when you complete your reference list the rest of the page is divided into three columns where you can record the page number where you obtained the information a summary of the information and your response to this information in the summary column you are summarizing your own words the information from the source you are reading now when you are writing a summary there are four basic rules which you must remember.

The Idea Focus in Research Paper

Don’t wait until you have a good idea to write something write stuff about any idea that you’ve got they got the message there I don’t wait to have a good idea because nobody does we only discover that they’re good ideas later right there’s really important because everybody has this problem and it’s very disabling if you wait to you have an idea that you think is cool it cool enough ok let’s see last little piece of about ideas is that when you write a paper by the time you are finished at least you must be clear about what the idea is you may not be very clear right at the beginning this goes back to the question about abstracts right so that um you but by the time you finished you really ought to be able to articulate what your idea is um more to say about that later. Find useful material about research at Edusson.

But the the bottom point is the important thing sometimes you find you read a paper and I think oh well that’s got several ideas and they’ve got so shush together they’ve been sort of squeezed into there you know the compass of a 10 page paper and you haven’t done justice to any of them right so if you have lots of ideas you know praise be right lots of papers this is not salami slicing that is writing many papers about one idea that’s writing many papers about many ideas ok so resist the temptation to just you know escape lightly over many ideas just try to try to focus and be clear what the idea is sometimes there’s a very closely related family this is a kind of you know there’s no nothing is completely true but this is a good baseline to start from ok yeah and so this is some Joe touch I gave a nice talk how I was acting what you said.

He remembered The Hunt for Red October and where captain whoever it is says just one ping they send out a sort of some bounce to another submarine only one light so that’s a and the ping is the idea so a good so here’s a good exercise when you read somebody else’s paper close the paper once and try to say what is the idea that I learned from that paper what is the key thought in that paper used to be surprised how how hard it can be indeed I have found myself as a reviewer writing in my review I believe that a key idea in this paper is de dum de dum de dum but I’m not really sure because you also didn’t really tell me and so I like that in my review because I want the author to think well well that wasn’t my key idea at all so you know who have you a completely misunderstood they might then reshape it and I think yes that was the key idea I should make it more explicit so you know I would encourage you to be totally explicit and to one to write something that says here is the key idea I sometimes write a section that says you know the main idea.

Writing Professional Emails Part 2

Analyze the following real emails from students for formatting, content, and politeness:


Email #1: How could you improve the formatting and wording of this email?

to: Julia Doe <>
date: Mon, Dec 10, 2010 at 4:00 PM
subject: today’s class


Dear Julie

Hi. This is Janos.
I probably won’t be able to attend today’s class and thursday’s class.
But if my absentity is not enough, I will take time today to go to class.
Could you inform me in case?

Sorry to take your time, but I think I’m running out of time to finish my report to my company…

Best Regards



Email #2: How could you improve these short emails?

from: ——
to: Julia Deak <>
date: Thu, Oct 9, 2008 at 9:00 AM
subject: Hi, this is Noah.

I am Noah. I’d like to hand in the essay of unit 2.

Attached is the file. Please receive it.

See you tomorrow^^


From: —-


Date: February 26, 2011

Subject: statement of purpose

Hi Meredith,

I have been working for couple of week at my statement of purpose. Finally I completed. Could you check my statement purpose and my resume. I want to apply University of Wisconsin Law School but the deadline is March 1 so I really need them tomorrow. I am sorry I am late.




From: ——–


Date: February 9, 2010

Subject: Shamma


Hi Meredith ,

I reviwe the passion essay  , can you accept it and check it  ?




Compare these emails. Find 3 problems with #3. Then say how #4  is more polite.

Email #3:

Dear Doe,

I am applying for a summer institute and I need a recommendation letter. The deadline is tomorrow. Could you please write one for me? I am attaching the form below.

Thank you!
My sincerely,



Email #4 (written 2 months before deadline):
Dear Julia,


How is your life in Seattle? I have not seen you for a long long time. I hope everything goes well with you.


This is my second year for TESOL program. As I have been working as a research assistant for Prof. Perfecto and Prof. Bien, I am more and more interested in doing research, therefore, I plan to apply for the Ph. D. program at GSE. However, many of the professors that have taught me cannot write a recommendation letter because they are the members of the committee. I was wondering could you write a recommendation letter for me? I do understand if you cannot since I know you are very busy. I hope you understand.


I will e-mail my SOP, transcript and resume to you if you can write a letter for me. Thank you very much. I look forward to your response. Have a good weekend!






Writing Professional Emails

Knowing email etiquette is a very important thing nowadays. Here you can see some basic rules and examples.


In an email, as in regular writing, sentences should be grouped into paragraphs. You can indent each one 5 spaces or just skip a line between paragraphs. Do not start each sentence on a new line!


Use the subject line in the header of the email to briefly describe what is in your email. Good examples of subjects are “ENG 103 assignment attached,” “a request from John Doe,” or “question about class (ENG 103)”.


Emoticons are generally best left out. Use your words, especially adjectives.


Emails are like letters: they should contain a greeting or salutation, an opening or introduction, a body in which you explain the purpose for writing, a conclusion, and a closing.



If your name appears in a non-Roman character set, you will want to state your full name in the email, but probably not in the subject line. You can introduce yourself in the first line of the first paragraph: “This is Minhee.” And be sure to sign your full name at the bottom in the form FirstName LastName: Minhee Kim. You can program your email to sign every message with an electronic signature that includes your full name and title or contact information if you’d like.


Professors should be addressed as EITHER:

Prof. Lastname     OR      Dr. Lastname     OR      Firstname  (sometimes)
Professors are referred to as NEITHER:

Prof. Firstname        NOR      Lastname        NOR    Firstname (usually)

To get a better understanding of writing email I will give you a couple of examples so you can analyze them. But that’s going to be in our next post. Stay tuned!

Archetypes in Literature: Actions/Events

The last but not the least – actions/events archetypes:

Journey–“The protagonist takes a journey, usually physical but sometimes emotional, during which he or she learns something about himself or herself or finds meaning in his or her life as well as acceptance in a community” (Herz and Gallo 112).
• Linear
• Circular
• Quests
• Quest for material wealth
• Quest for security, as a secure place to live
• Quest for kin
• Quest for global good, such as when a kingdom is threatened
• Quest for self, for self-identity or self-assurance
Rites of initiation
Parental Conflict and Relationships
• “The protagonist deals with parental conflict by rejecting or bonding with parents” (Herz and Gallo 117).
Coming of age
• Crucial for physical and/or psychological healing. During dreams, a person can grow. A person can fantasize freely in sleep. A transitional and beneficial period. In dream sphere can descend to the sphere of the Great Mother. Person awakens with a greater understanding of human nature (Knapp 88).
Sacrificial Rites
The Test or Trial
• “In the transition from one stage of life to another, the main character experiences a rite of passage through growth and change; he or she experiences a transformation” (Herz and Gallo 115).
Birth/Death and Rebirth
• “Through pain and suffering the character overcomes feelings of despair, and through a process of self-realization is reborn” (Herz and Gallo 110).
The Fall: Expulsion from Eden
• “The main character is expelled because of an unacceptable action on his or her part” (Herz and Gallo 111).
Annihilation/Absurdity/Total Oblivion
• “In order to exist in an intolerable world, the main character accepts that life is absurd, ridiculous, and ironic” (Herz and Gallo 116).

Archetypes in Literature: Settings

Now let’s talk about settings archetypes
• Cultivated and carefully planned. Restricted to certain vegetation.
•Habitat of the Great Mother (Mother Nature), the lunar force. Fertility. The vegetation and animals flourish in this “green world” because of the sustaining power of the Great Mother.
Symbolically the primitive levels of the feminine psyche, protective and sheltering. Those who enter often lose their
direction or rational outlook and thus tap into their collective unconscious. This unregulated space is opposite of the
cultivated gardens, which are carefully planned and are restricted to certain vegetation.
• Represents life and knowledge
Caves and tunnels
• Deep down where character delves into self
• Place that character goes when “invisible” or inactive
• At the extreme may signify death
Mountains and peaks
• Highest peak is place to “see” far
• Place to gain great insight
The River
• Crossing river may symbolize new territory
• Rivers can be boundaries or borders & on the other side is
something new or different
• May represent human life or time passing as we follow the river
from its source to its mouth
The Sea
• Vast, alien, dangerous, chaos
• Waves may symbolize measures of time and represent eternity
or infinity
• Stands for purification; the sprinkling of water (baptism)
washes away sin. Water of fountain gives new life (Knapp 32).
• Microcosms or small worlds unto themselves
• Represent isolation or get-a-ways

Archetypes in Literature

Definition of Archetype:

“A universally recognizable element . . . that recurs across all literature and life (Latrobe 13). Psychologist Carl Jung called these elements a kind of “collective unconscious” of the human race, prototypes rather than something gained from experience. The word is derived from the Greek: arche, original, and typos, form or model; thus, original model
(Latrobe 13).
An archetype is the first real example or prototype of something (as the Model T is the prototype of the modern automobile). In this sense an archetype can be considered the ideal model, the supreme type or the
perfect image of something (Brunel 111-112, 114). A key to understanding folk literature is to understand archetypes. “An archetype is to the psyche what an instinct is to the body. . . . . Archetypes are the psychic instincts of the human species.” (Edinger as quoted in Knapp 10). Archetypes are universal in human beings. Archetypes result in a deep emotional response for readers. “Archetypes are repeated patterns that recur in the literature of every
age” (Sloan 48).

Examples of Archetypes

Hero (think of the classic hero journey & qualities of hero)
• “The main character leaves his or her community to go on an adventure, performing deeds that bring honor to the community” (Herz and Gallo 121).
Mother figure
• Fairy Godmother (surrogate mother)—comforts and directs
child, especially when he or she is confused and needs
guidance. Represents powers that can be called on for help
when it is needed. Helps young person to solve own problems
(Knapp 71).
•Earth Mother
• Stepmother
The great teacher/mentor
• Wise old men/women—protects or helps main character when he or she faces challenges.
The innocent
• Child/Youth
• Inexperienced adult
• Split personality—the other side of an individual
Helping animals
The Sacrificial Redeemer
• “The protagonist is willing to die for his or her beliefs; the main character maintains a strong sense of morality” (Herz and Gallo 123).
Scapegoat/Sacrificial Victim
The Giant/Monster/Ogre
• Wolf
Evil figure
• The Devil
• Serpent


Walt Whitman Background on Poetry

The following elements of style are frequently evident in Whitman’s poetry.

1. Written in free verse, no rhyme or meter.
2. Long flowing lines (some say there is a pattern: opening lines short, middle lines long,
closing lines short)
3. Use of Cataloguing: the listing of ideas, concepts, images
4. Use of Anaphora: repetition at the beginning of lines
5. Inclusion of Parallel Structure: use of and repetition of sentence patterns
6. Sensory Imagery: tactile, visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory
7. Vernacular Diction: common language, slang, informal
8. Specific Jargon/Diction: word choice that borrows words from anatomy, war, nautical
concepts, and astronomy
9. Persona: a role or character in a poem
10. Cadence: heard when read orally, the rhythmic rise and fall of the voice often in oratory

The following ideas are often the basis of Whitman’s themes:

1. Love of the common man: the workingman or women, the “roughs”
2. Horrors of War: The Civil War, the suffering and futility
3. Love of America: its variety, its diversity, the landscapes
4. Love of city life: especially Manhattan, the teeming streets loud with talking and
5. Love of the sea: its timelessness, its beauty
6. Love of the human body: the beauty, the sensual nature
7. Appreciation of music: especially opera, songs in nature (wind, birds)
8. Appreciation of nature: especially small often insignificant things like ants, blades of
grass, etc.
9. Admiration of President Lincoln
10. Sympathy and empathy for the slaves